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User Guide

Orbit 360 Basic Plus & Premium

Please read our FAQ section carefully as this is where the most common questions about our products have already been answered.

Atlas

Orbit 360

No. The internal batteries are only intended for backup and emergency mode operation in case the external power supply stops working or it is stolen.

  1. Unplug the 3-terminal orange power plug to disconnect the external power supply.
  2. Follow the instructions on the display and press UP + SET + DOWN to also disconnect the internal power supply.

The alarms are a new feature that allows users to setup level-based triggers associated to any of the logger channels. You can even setup automated actions based on the created alarms for, for example, activate the ventilation unit of a pyranometer, the heating of an anemometer, or just send a simple email).

Yes, you can. The Orbit 360 data logger can operate with any SIM card (not required for the SIM card to have a public IP address). However, to take advantage of all the features in the Orbit 360 data logger and Atlas, we recommend using a SIM card with a public IP address.

Take into account that incoming connections from Atlas via internet will require that the SIM card is assigned with a public IP address.

No, it does not matter whether the IP is “static” or “dynamic”.

Yes, there is. Kintech Engineering offers a cost-effective fixed price Global Internet SIM card that works in practically all countries worldwide.

The Ethernet port of the Orbit 360 data logger is intended for Modbus TCP communication without the need for converters.

No, the Orbit 360 data logger does not need and add-on extra module for Modbus RTU connectivity: it features integrated Modbus RTU support.

This feature is available exclusively on the Orbit 360 Premium. Keep in mind that the Orbit 360 Basic Plus can be upgraded to an Orbit 360 Premium by our technical support team.

No, the Orbit 360 data logger does not need and add-on extra module for Modbus TCP connectivity: it features integrated Modbus TCP over Ethernet.

This feature is available exclusively on the Orbit 360 Premium. Keep in mind that the Orbit 360 Basic Plus can be upgraded to an Orbit 360 Premium by our technical support team.

Yes.

This feature is available exclusively on the Orbit 360 Premium. Keep in mind that the Orbit 360 Basic Plus can be upgraded to an Orbit 360 Premium by our technical support team.

Both antennas must be connected to their corresponding logger connectors, located in the upper right corner of the terminals side of the case, and installed out of the shelter box, in vertical position and as far as possible from the tower structure to minimize signal attenuation.

Yes, there is a new Wiring Panel® for the Orbit 360 data logger. The Wiring Panel is designed to increase the protection of the data logger from electrostatic discharges and allows the operator to easily insert and remove cables.

You can connect any sensor whose output consists of pulses with a voltage level of between 0 and 5 volts. Typical examples of these type of sensors include cup anemometers such as Thies First Class, WindSensor or Vector; but also K611P (barometer) and Geovanes (True North orientation).

Sensors with 0-5V and 0-1V output can be connected directly to the analog channels. Typical examples of these kind of sensors include wind vanes, thermometers, barometers, hygrometers, radiation sensors, etc.

Sensors with 0-20mA, 4-20mA or 0-10V output can be connected using an adapter. Please contact our technical support for advice.

You can connect any smart sensor with RS-485 output that appears in the “Sensor model” pull-down menu* located in the Site settings of the Atlas software.

This feature is available exclusively on the Orbit 360 Premium. Keep in mind that the Orbit 360 Basic Plus can be upgraded to an Orbit 360 Premium by our technical support team.

*If the sensor you want to use is not included on the list, please contact our technical support for more information about sensor integration.

No. Only the parameters labelled in blue color correspond to a logger configuration parameter. In order to help the user organize the campaign, several other fields are available but, as they are not labelled in blue, they do not belog to the logger configuration and can be left blank.

The .sit files contains a specific logger configuration that can be uploaded through Atlas to the logger SD card, either locally (via SD card slot of the computer) or remotely (via Internet, satellite, etc.).

The .log file is the encrypted raw data (volts and hertz) stored from all the sensors connected to the data logger, as well as the “asynchronous” events that have occurred during the measurement period (keypad access, low battery, etc.).

The .wnd contains the decoded data, result of applying the slope and offset manually input into the Atlas software.

The .txt file contains the metadata associated to the .log file (a summary of the download and decoding information, as well as a summary of all events that occurred for the period of that particular .log file. 

At the end. For instance, provided that the logger is configured to 10-min averaging intervals, it will calculate the average and all the other statistical data every minutes 00, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 of every hour. Let’s say the time is 00:20:00, at that moment the logger will calculate the average of the 600 readings between 00:10:00 and 00:20:00.

If you are using the SD memory card that was supplied together with the data logger, the SD card is already formatted.

In case you want to re-format a SD card please follow these steps:

  1. Turn off the data logger
  2. Insert the SD card you want to format into the data logger
  3. Turn the data logger on
  4. Wait for at least 12 minutes

The SD card is now formatted correctly.

Yes, you can use any SD memory card (with a maximum capacity of 2GB). However, not all SD memory cards have the same quality. We strongly recommend using the industrial grade SD memory card that is supplied together with the data logger.

Please make sure that the SD card is correctly formatted before use.

Atlas is used to prepare the configuration file for the Orbit 360 data logger. The .sit file (configuration file) is then uploaded to the data logger.

Atlas downloads the encrypted .log file from the data logger. The .log file contains all the RAW data (the pulses and Hz stored from all the sensors connected to the data logger)

Atlas then automatically converts the .log file into a .wnd file and .txt file using the active logger configuration file (also stored on your PC)

Because of the extensive number of customers with wind & solar measurement campaigns in several different countries we know that many of you find it difficult to acquire local SIM cards with the optimal settings and local GPRS / 3G coverage.

We have listened to your feedback and the need for a more effective way to handle this. Our engineers have been working on this for a while and have come up with a solution for a single SIM card that offers Internet connection to your data loggers and works in practically all countries worldwide. A single SIM card that checks for all the available local GPRS / 3G signals and automatically connects to the operator with the best coverage. This has in many cases demonstrated to improve and simplify communications compared to conventional SIM cards that just work with a single operator.

Benefits with our new Global SIM card:

  • Internet connection to all your data loggers
  • Faster download times
  • One solution for all your sites
  • Get the most out of Atlas software including automatic data transfers
  • No more talking to your local GSM provider
  • Cost effective and no monthly data plans

Contact us on support@kintech-engineering.com for more information and prices

We offer two alternative satellite solutions, Iridium and BGAN. Either solution enables you to connect with data loggers installed in remote locations without GSM coverage while maintaining full compatibility with the other features and accessories of our data loggers, including:

  • Live data connections
  • Remote modifications to logger settings incl. firmware upgrades
  • Automatic data download
  • GPS coordinates
  • Windfarm Monitoring Module

Click here to read more about the “Iridium Satellite Module”

Click here to read more about the “BGAN Satellite Module”

We recommend using a flotation (back-up) sealed lead-acid battery (12VDC). This kind of battery has no maintenance and can be transported in any orientation. If you are performing wind measurement and are using an internet / GSM connection to your data logger, we recommend using a 24Ah battery. This gives autonomy of approximately 1 month without the battery being recharged.

To test that the solar power supply system has been installed and performs properly you need a multimeter set to “Read Current” mode.

Step 1

To begin with you should check if the output from the solar panel is correct. You should do this on a sunny day (Please connect the multimeter as shown in the drawing below).

Step 2

Now check that the regulator is charging the battery. There are lEDs on the solar regulator helping you to indicate if the regulator is charging the battery. But to be sure you should check with the multimeter (see drawing below)

Figure 1.1B

In addition to dimensioning the solar power supply system correctly, it is important to position the solar panels appropriately for maximum electricity production.

In addition to dimensioning the solar power supply system correctly, it is important to orientate the solar panels appropriately for maximizing the energy production during the season with less sun energy.

In general the solar panel should be facing GEOGRAPHICAL SOUTH in the Northern hemisphere and GEOGRAPHICAL NORTH in the Southern hemisphere. And as a rule of thumb the inclination of the solar panel should be the latitude of the site where you are installing the solar panel -10°.

E.g. For an installation in Germany, close to Frankfurt (with latitude 50° N) you should orientate the solar panel towards SOUTH and with an inclination of 40° with respect to horizontal.

For sites in the North (e.g. Scandinavia), or where there may be very little sunlight during certain periods of the year, an individual solar radiation calculation should be carried out. You can contact our technical support for help on this.

Tropical and Equatorial sites

In inter-tropical latitudes the sun can be located either North or South. In the equator, for example, the met mast structure shadow is projected to the South for 6 months and to the North for the other 6 months. This of course lowers the radiation on the solar panel and we therefore recommend installing two separate solar panels.

Installing two solar panels

If you are going to install two separate solar panels, we recommend the following configuration (see images below). Both panels are to be installed in booms parallels to the West-East Earth axis, with one solar panel pointed towards the North (and tilted approx. 10°) and the other one pointed towards the South (and tilted approx. 10°). The charging efficiency is increased by using independent solar chargers for each solar panel.

Usually solar power systems for the Orbit 360 consist of a solar panel, a charge controller and a battery.

Important!

Always connect the battery terminals directly to the BAT + and – on the data logger. Do not connect the LOAD+ and LOAD- to the data logger. The reason we recommend this is to avoid the regulator to switch off its outputs when the battery drops below a certain cutoff limit for the regulator. Keep in mind that the data logger can work with 5V.

To ground the Orbit 360, connect one end of the copper ground wire (usually yellow-green color) to the data logger GND terminal and the other end to an independent grounding spike.

If the enclosure is metallic you must also connect the enclosure to the ground wire, to do so, all metallic enclosures have a connection screw terminal with the ground symbol on it.

Click here to download our “how to ground” guide

The Orbit 360 data logger include up to 16 physical frequency channels (pulse counters). To connect 12 cup anemometers with frequency output you need to use our Frequency Channel Expander. The Frequency Channel Expander is an external add-on module connected via RS-485 to the Orbit 360 Premium. It adds 6 physical frequency channels (pulse counters) to the data logger, enabling our users to connect a total of 16 cup anemometers with frequency output to the Orbit 360 Premium.

How is this done?

As shown below, the first 10 cup anemometers should be configured individually using frequency channel 1 to 10 (sensor type: anemometer). Since cup anemometer no. 11 and 12 are connected to the Frequency Channel Expander, that’s connected via RS-485 to the data logger, these two sensors should be mapped to frequency channel 11 and 12 (sensor type: serial device).

Yes, the Orbit 360 Premium data logger by default include 10 physical frequency channels (pulse counters) and 3 buses to collect up to 24 measurement values from sensors with RS-485 output.

How is this done?

Keep in mind that the Thies First Class Advanced X also has a frequency output to collect the “non-corrected” horizontal wind speed. In this example we are assuming that this “non-corrected” wind speed should be collected as well.

This means that the frequency output from all 8 cup anemometers should be configured individually using frequency channel 1 to 8 (sensor type: anemometer). Since the two Thies First Class Advanced X cup anemometers with RS-485 output also are connected to the RS-485 port on the data logger (to get the remaining variables including the corrected horizontal wind speed) these variables are, in this example, mapped to frequency channels 9 to 14, and to the analog channels from 1 to 8 as shown below.


Atlas Mobile

You can download the Atlas Mobile app directly from the App Store and from the Google Play store.

You can also find a link on https://www.kintech-engineering.com/atlas/

  1. Download the Atlas Mobile app from the App Store or from the Google Play store
  2. Open Atlas Mobile on your phone and fill in the details in the “Request account”
  3. Open Atlas on your desktop computer and enable “mobile app access” on each of the data loggers you want to connect to from the Atlas Mobile app.
  4. Start adding individual data loggers to Atlas Mobile

Yes, for added security, each data logger you want to connect to from the Atlas Mobile app must have this feature enabled. This is done from the Atlas desktop software.

  1. Open Atlas on your desktop computer
  2. Open the “site settings” for the data logger you want to connect to from Atlas Mobile
  3. Go to the “communication settings” in the left-hand menu and tick the “mobile app access enabled”
  4. Now upload the new settings to the data logger.

Yes. To begin with you must enable the “real time access password” for the data logger in the Atlas desktop software. When adding a data logger to the list in Atlas Mobile you can add this same real time password to the data logger.

No, this feature is only available with Orbit 360 Premium data loggers.

No, Atlas Mobile only works with the Orbit 360 Premium (firmware version ≥2.25)

  1. Open Atlas Mobile on your phone
  2. Click the “+” icon in the upper right-hand corner and fill in the serial number, the name and password for the data logger.
  3. Click submit.

Yes.

  1. Open Atlas Mobile on your phone
  2. Click on the data logger of your choice in the main list of data loggers
  3. In the bottom right-hand corner click the “Realtime” button
  4. Now tap the screen to connect in real time

To close the connection, press the “back” button.

Geovane

In the abscense of sunlight, the Geovane will keep the latest valid data obtained since it was powered on. As soon as it receives sufficient radiation from the Sun, Geovane will update its orientation output. This temporary “pause” does not imply any inconvenience due to the nature of the data.

Assuming that the Geovane has been properly aligned with the wind vane by means of its built-in laser, the Geovane will then continuously provide the angular wind vane offset with respect to Geographic North. The user should then apply this offset in the post processing of the dataset.

Yes, the Geovane is fully compatible with any industry standard data logger through the following output options:

  • Frequency ouput 30-130Hz (0-5V square wave)
  • Analog output 0.5-4.5V
  • RS-485 digital ouput

At the moment, the wind vanes compatible with Geovane are: Thies First Class, Thies Compact, Young Wind Monitor, Young Wind Monitor Alpine, Vector W200P and Ornytion 207P. In the future, it will be possible to extend compatibilty even further.

With the Geovane Wind Turbine, wind farm operators can finally access True North orientation on individual wind turbines. Live data available 365 days a year.

The Geovane Wind Turbine offers the exact orientation of the turbine’s nacelle with respect to True North. Aligning all your wind turbines to the same angular reference point enables the wind farm operator to compare yaw turbine alignments. This means that all the turbine yaw encoders in any given windfarm now have the same reference point.

Here are just a few of the benefits a Geovane can provide:

  • Eliminates the need for expensive third-party alignment services
  • Resolves issues related to alignment degradation over time
  • Forms the basis for accurate wind sector management
  • Permits improved wake control
  • Provides highly improved turbine-to-turbine performance assessment
  • Establishes an identical True North reference point for all wind turbines

The Geovane Wind Turbine is specifically developed for turbine alignment and includes ad hoc hardware and software.

For more information about Geovane Wind Turbine click here

By adding a new wind vane equipped with a Geovane to an already existing met mast, you are able to correct existing wind direction datasets whitout altering the consistency of previous wind vane measurements.

If the Geovane is installed from the beginning, it is possible to have wind direction datasets inmune to the torsion of the tower structure or bended sensor booms. Throughout the measurement campaign, the Geovane will provide the updated offset, achieving absolute accuracy and greater guarantees to external auditors and financial investors.

No. Any orientation can be used, since the azimuthal Field of View (FOV) of the Geovane is 360°. The Geovane should obviously be perfectly aligned with the e.g. wind vane (see the user manual how to do this).
It is recommended that the wind vane’s cable is positioned in such a way, that it runs down the side of the Geovane facing

In addition to the advantages associated with digital communication and EMI immunity, RS-485 digital output allows the Geovane to provide other useful data apart from the orientation offset: tilt of the sensor, boom vibration, GPS coordinates, UTC time…
A Geovane connected via RS-485 can be used as the GPS module for data loggers and RSD without GPS by default.

EOL Zenith

If you are using the SD memory card that was supplied together with the data logger, the SD card is already formatted.

In case you want to re-format a SD card please follow these steps:

  1. Turn off the data logger
  2. Insert the SD card you want to format into the data logger
  3. Turn the data logger on
  4. Wait for at least 12 minutes

The SD card is now formatted correctly.

Yes, you can use any SD memory card (with a maximum capacity of 2GB). However, not all SD memory cards have the same quality. We strongly recommend using the industrial grade SD memory card that is supplied together with the data logger.

Please make sure that the SD card is correctly formatted before use.

The EOL Manager is used to prepare the configuration file for the EOL Zenith data logger. The .sit file (configuration file) is then uploaded to the data logger.

EOL Manager downloads the encrypted .log file from the data logger. The .log file contains all the RAW data (the pulses and Hz stored from all the sensors connected to the data logger)

EOL Manager then automatically converts the .log file into a .wnd file and .txt file using the active logger configuration file (also stored on your PC)

Because of the extensive number of customers with wind & solar measurement campaigns in several different countries we know that many of you find it difficult to acquire local SIM cards with the optimal settings and local GPRS / 3G coverage.

We have listened to your feedback and the need for a more effective way to handle this. Our engineers have been working on this for a while and have come up with a solution for a single SIM card that offers Internet connection to your data loggers and works in practically all countries worldwide. A single SIM card that checks for all the available local GPRS / 3G signals and automatically connects to the operator with the best coverage. This has in many cases demonstrated to improve and simplify communications compared to conventional SIM cards that just work with a single operator.

Benefits with our new Global SIM card:

  • Internet connection to all your data loggers
  • Faster download times
  • One solution for all your sites
  • Get the most out of EOL Manager including automatic data transfers
  • No more talking to your local GSM provider
  • Cost effective and no monthly data plans

Contact us on support@kintech-engineering.com for more information and prices

We offer two alternative satellite solutions, Iridium and BGAN. Either solution enables you to connect with data loggers installed in remote locations without GSM coverage while maintaining full compatibility with the other features and accessories of our data loggers, including:

  • Live data connections
  • Remote modifications to logger settings incl. firmware upgrades
  • Automatic data download
  • GPS coordinates
  • Windfarm Monitoring Module

Click here to read more about the “Iridium Satellite Module”

Click here to read more about the “BGAN Satellite Module”

We recommend using a flotation (back-up) sealed lead-acid battery (12VDC). This kind of battery has no maintenance and can be transported in any orientation. If you are performing wind measurement and are using an internet / GSM connection to your data logger, we recommend using a 24Ah battery. This gives autonomy of approximately 1 month without the battery being recharged.

To test that the solar power supply system has been installed and performs properly you need a multimeter set to “Read Current” mode.

Step 1

To begin with you should check if the output from the solar panel is correct. You should do this on a sunny day (Please connect the multimeter as shown in the drawing below).

Step 2

Now check that the regulator is charging the battery. There are lEDs on the solar regulator helping you to indicate if the regulator is charging the battery. But to be sure you should check with the multimeter (see drawing below)

Figure 1.1B

In addition to dimensioning the solar power supply system correctly, it is important to position the solar panels appropriately for maximum electricity production.

In addition to dimensioning the solar power supply system correctly, it is important to orientate the solar panels appropriately for maximizing the energy production during the season with less sun energy.

In general the solar panel should be facing GEOGRAPHICAL SOUTH in the Northern hemisphere and GEOGRAPHICAL NORTH in the Southern hemisphere. And as a rule of thumb the inclination of the solar panel should be the latitude of the site where you are installing the solar panel -10°.

E.g. For an installation in Germany, close to Frankfurt (with latitude 50° N) you should orientate the solar panel towards SOUTH and with an inclination of 40° with respect to horizontal.

For sites in the North (e.g. Scandinavia), or where there may be very little sunlight during certain periods of the year, an individual solar radiation calculation should be carried out. You can contact our technical support for help on this.

Tropical and Equatorial sites

In inter-tropical latitudes the sun can be located either North or South. In the equator, for example, the met mast structure shadow is projected to the South for 6 months and to the North for the other 6 months. This of course lowers the radiation on the solar panel and we therefore recommend installing two separate solar panels.

Installing two solar panels

If you are going to install two separate solar panels, we recommend the following configuration (see images below). Both panels are to be installed in booms parallels to the West-East Earth axis, with one solar panel pointed towards the North (and tilted approx. 10°) and the other one pointed towards the South (and tilted approx. 10°). The charging efficiency is increased by using independent solar chargers for each solar panel.

Usually solar power systems for the EOL Zenith consist of a solar panel, a charge controller and a battery.

Important!

Always connect the battery terminals directly to the BAT + and – on the data logger. Do not connect the LOAD+ and LOAD- to the data logger. The reason we recommend this is to avoid the regulator to switch off its outputs when the battery drops below a certain cutoff limit for the regulator. Keep in mind that the data logger can work with 5V. See drawing below.

To ground the EOL Zenith®, connect one end of the copper ground wire (usually yellow-green color) to the data logger GND terminal and the other end to an independent grounding spike.

If the enclosure is metallic you must also connect the enclosure to the ground wire, to do so, all metallic enclosures have a connection screw terminal with the ground symbol on it.

Click here to download our “how to ground” guide

EOL Manager

Log into your account with you username and password. From the download menu within your account you can download the latest version of EOL Manager.

When you have downloaded the installation file (EOLManagerSetup.msi) locate the file on your PC and double click it. One single file (EOLManagerSetup.msi) installs both the EOL Manager® and EOL Charting on your pc.
The first time you run the software, it will ask for the folder you wish all the data files to be located. That folder will contain all other folders associated with all your future wind measurement sites.

We encourage you to keep up to date with the latest EOL Manager version. When you update to a newer version of EOL Manager, please uninstall the “old” version first and then reinstall the new version. No data and/or configuration files are lost during this uninstall and reinstall process.

System requirements

Operating System: EOL Manager is supported on Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows XP with .NET Framework version 3.5 SP3 or later version installed.

MMC card reader: You need a MMC card reader for accessing the data on the MMC card from your PC as well as for configuring the EOL Zenith with your logger settings.

Google Earth: If you want to see the exact position of your wind measurement sites, you need to install Google Earth on your PC.

Telephone connection or Internet access: If you are planning to connect to the data logger via a telephone MODEM or Internet. We strongly recommend connecting to your data logger via your internet connection.

The EOL Manager software needs an active license to run on your computer. You can get and/or renew your software license directly from your online user account.

If you do not already have a license, go to “Request Account” and fill out the form. Our support team will then upload your first software license to your user account. Once our support team have uploaded your license you will receive an automatic email notification.

When your license is about to expire, just click the “Renew License” button under “Software Licenses” from your user account.

Go to EOL Manager > Options > License Information and insert your software license. (See A)

When data is downloaded from your data logger it is automatically stored in the folder you chose when you installed EOL Manager.

The easiest way for you to see your latest data is to right click on your data logger in the main dashboard of EOL Manager. You will then see the menu (as shown here below) where you have access to most of the main features to operate an EOL Zenith data logger.

Click on “Last Data” (See A) to see your data in table format or click “Last Data Charts” to see your data in EOL Charting.

Open EOL Manager and go to the data logger you are working on. Open the “inputs” tab and type in the calibration values from the Measnet calibration certificate.

Please notice that it is not necessary to upload these calibration values to the data logger. The data logger simply does not use them. All the calibration values are applied by the EOL Manager once the RAW data (.log file) has been downloaded. When connected in real-time to a data logger, the calibration values from EOL Manager is used.

Every logger on EOL Manager has its own directory where data is stored. If you want to move the content of the current directory to a new folder, it is very important to do it from EOL Manager and not from Windows. To do so, access to Logger Settings → Site Info tab → Download Directory and type in the User Defined Path field, the path of the new folder you want to move the wind data files to. In case the selected folder does not exist, EOL Manager will create it automatically and then it will automatically move the content from the old directory to the new one. Future data downloaded will be stored in that new path as well.

The .elog files contain raw data that were sent by email, either by the logger itself or by another EOL Manager forwarding them after download. You can configure EOL Manager to extract the data from the .elog files automatically by selecting “Read Emails From Logger / Synchronize from other EOL Manager” in the “Download” tab of the Logger Settings. In case you need to do it manually, go to Tools –> Import Data Downloaded By Email and then select the files you want to extract the data from. Decoding an .elog file generates three new files: .log (raw data), .txt (report) and .wnd (decoded data).

There are several ways to share data from the EOL Zenith data logger with e.g. your colleagues, external consultants or your met mast installation company. Click here to download our guide.

Sensors

All the most common sensors (anemometers, wind vanes, etc.) used for both wind & solar resource assessment are compatible with the EOL Zenith.

If you are in doubt or have a special sensor you want to connect to the EOL Zenith, please contact our technical support on support@kintech-engineering.com

This depends on the type of barometer. If you use the e.g. Setra M276 sensor (output in voltage) you need to increase the cable section from 0,5mm2 to 2.5 mm2 to avoid signal loss.

Unlike most other barometers the frequency output from the K611P barometer however ensures signal integrity from the top of the met mast all the way down to the data logger at the bottom. You do therefore not need to increase the cable section when using this sensor. The K611P barometer is therefore, in most cases, the most cost effective overall solution (saving you costs on cable).

You can download the sensors wiring diagrams directly from the Atlas software (under Site Settings and Channels) or in the Download section on our website.

Solar Resource Assessment

Not directly. The output signal from this pyranometer is in milivolts and the input channels on the EOL Zenith ranges from 0-5 volts. You therefore need an amplifier for this pyranometer. The amplifier we supply is called AMPVAR.

This error is related to the zero offset type A. Normally this zero offset is present when the inner dome has a different temperature from the cold junctions of the sensor. Practically this is always the case when there is a clear sky. Because of the low effective sky temperature (<0 °C) the earth surface emits roughly 100 W/m2 longwave infrared radiation upwards. The outer glass dome of a pyranometer also has this emission and is cooling down several degrees below air temperature (the emissivity of glass for the particular wavelength region is nearly. The emitted heat is attracted from the body (by conduction in the dome), from the air (by wind) and from the inner dome (through infrared radiation). The inner dome is cooling down too and will attract heat from the body by conduction and from the sensor by the net infrared radiation. The latter heat flow is opposite to the heat flow from absorbed solar radiation and causes the well-known zero depression at night. This negative zero offset is also present on a clear day, however, hidden in the solar radiation signal.

Zero offset type A can be checked by placing a light and IR reflecting cap over the pyranometer. The response to solar radiation will decay with a time constant (1/e) of 1 s, but the dome temperature will go to equilibrium with a time constant of several minutes. So after half a minute the remaining signal represents mainly zero offset type A.

Good ventilation of domes and body is the solution to reducing zero offsets even further.

Remote Sensing (Sodar)

Sodar stands for Sonic Detection And Ranging. It works by sending out a sound pulse and recording the reflections scattered back off the atmosphere. The change is sound frequency of the reflection is converted into wind conditions and the time it takes to detect the returned sound indicates the height of the measurement.

The Fulcrum3D Sodar provides data on wind conditions including wind speed, wind direction, wind speed standard deviation and inflow angle (related to vertical wind speed).

The Fulcrum3D Sodar is different to most Sodar devices available on the market. The main features are listed below:
– Specifically designed for use in complex terrain. – Accurate and highly validated by independent consultants. – Fixed beam angles for greater consistency between sites. – Full raw data capture allows historic data to be reprocessed with updated firmware. – Fully integrated power supply and communications included in price.

The unit has been used in a variety of deployments over four continents ranging from two week verifications to multiyear campaigns. These have covered both simple and complex terrain, operations between -10º to 50ºC and in both dessert and tropical locations.

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